People sometimes ask what books on Stoicism to read next after they’ve read the “Big Three”: Seneca, Epictetus, and Marcus Aurelius.
Of course, opinions are going to vary about this. There are lots of things we could suggest reading. Setting aside modern books on the subject, though, these are the first six I normally recommend…
Diogenes Laertius’ Lives and Opinions
You don’t need to read the whole book. The long chapter on Zeno contains a summary of early Stoic teachings. However, you may want to read the whole of books six (Cynicism) and seven (Stoicism). This contains second or third hand information summarized from earlier texts in the 3rd century AD by a biographer who wasn’t himself a Stoic or even a philosopher. Nevertheless it remains one of our most important sources for information on the teachings of the early Greek Stoic school.
The Lectures of Musonius Rufus
Musonius was the teacher of Epictetus and reputedly the most important philosopher of his lifetime. He was the mentor of key members of the Stoic Opposition. A collection of his lectures and several fragments still survive today, which are similar in some ways to the teachings of Epictetus. If you like Epictetus, you should certainly read this, although it’s really an essential source for anyone interested in Stoicism.
Xenophon’s Memorabilia of Socrates
Our other major source for information on Socrates, beside Plato. Xenophon paints a simpler and more Stoic picture of Socrates’ philosophy. It was reputedly hearing a reading of Book Two that inspired Zeno to become a philosopher and ultimately to found the Stoic School. That part of the Memorabilia contains Socrates’ version of a famous oration by the Sophist Prodicus, called The Choice of Hercules, which was designed as an exhortation for young men to embrace philosophy as a way of life and places considerable emphasis on self-mastery. Xenophon’s version of Socrates is more concerned with the virtue of self-discipline and it’s easy to see this as an important influence on Stoicism.
We could cite all of the works of Plato as relevant but the dialogue that seems to have most influenced the Stoics is the Apology. The concluding sentence of Epictetus’ Handbook, for example, paraphrases from it. It provides a vivid example of Socrates’ commitment to philosophy and his courage facing execution but there’s also considerable discussion of his attitudes toward death and positive teachings about morality, which coincide very closely with later Stoic teachings. Death is neither good nor evil and it’s important to overcome our fear of dying; wisdom and virtue are the highest goods and we should never value things like wealth more highly than them. Stoic-sounding teachings can be found in many other Platonic dialogues – including the Euthydemus, Gorgias, Meno and Republic – but the Apology is the best place to start looking.
Plutarch’s Life of Cato the Younger
Cato is one of the less well-known Stoics because we don’t have any writings by him today but he was a great hero of the Roman Republic because he defied the tyrant Julius Caesar. Our best account of him comes from Plutarch’s Lives, which is a biography but contains several interesting anecdotes about his character and values, although not much philosophy. If you’re interested in Stoicism, though, you should know about Cato, and also about the Stoic Opposition, which followed later, under the principate.
Cicero’s De Finibus
Cicero was an Academic philosopher but he had studied philosophy at Athens and was exceptionally well-read on the subject and very familiar with the teachings of Stoicism. He’s also quite sympathetic toward the Stoics, though not one himself, so his writings provide one of our most important sources for early and middle Stoicism. Stoicism is mentioned, or is an influence, throughout many of his works, but the most important is undoubtedly De Finibus, which portrays Cato the Younger summarizing early Stoic ethical teachings, which Cicero compares critically with those of the Epicureans and Academics. This is our most systematic account of Stoic ethics, so it’s extremely valuable in providing a context for the more conversational and fragmented version we obtain from Seneca, Epictetus, and Marcus Aurelius.
It should go without saying that this is the tip of the iceberg. There are many other ancient texts of relevance to Stoicism. Xenophon’s Symposium and Apology are also very important as are all of the Platonic dialogues and many other writings by non-Stoics such as Cicero and Plutarch. There are many fragments from early Stoic texts available in several compilations. There are also less well-known Stoic texts, which still survive today, like the Greek Theology of Cornutus and the Pharsalia of Lucan. The poems of Horace also contain many Stoic influences. The Roman histories are also extremely valuable, especially in relation to understanding the life of Marcus Aurelius. My goal here isn’t to provide a survey of everything, though, just a quick introduction to the texts I normally advise people to read first, after finishing Seneca, Epictetus, and Marcus Aurelius.